Aside from the diamond , the ruby , sapphire , emerald , pearl not, strictly speaking, a gemstone , and opal  have also been considered to be precious. Up to the discoveries of bulk amethyst in Brazil in the 19th century, amethyst was considered a precious stone as well, going back to ancient Greece. Even in the last century certain stones such as aquamarine , peridot and cat's eye cymophane have been popular and hence been regarded as precious.
Today such a distinction is no longer made by the gemstone trade. Nevertheless, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds still have a reputation that exceeds those of other gemstones. Rare or unusual gemstones, generally meant to include those gemstones which occur so infrequently in gem quality that they are scarcely known except to connoisseurs, include andalusite , axinite , cassiterite , clinohumite and red beryl.
Gemstone pricing and value are governed by factors and characteristics on the quality of the stone. These characteristics include clarity, rarity, freedom of defects, beauty of the stone, as well as the demand for them. There are different pricing influencers for both colored gemstones, and for diamonds. The pricing on colored stones is determined by market supply-and-demand, but diamonds are more intricate. Diamond value can change based on location, time, and on the evaluations of diamond vendors.
There are a number of laboratories which grade and provide reports on gemstones. Each laboratory has its own methodology to evaluate gemstones.
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A stone can be called "pink" by one lab while another lab calls it "padparadscha". One lab can conclude a stone is untreated, while another lab might conclude that it is heat-treated.
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Country of origin has sometimes been difficult to determine, due to the constant discovery of new source locations. Determining a "country of origin" is thus much more difficult than determining other aspects of a gem such as cut, clarity, etc. Gem dealers are aware of the differences between gem laboratories and will make use of the discrepancies to obtain the best possible certificate. A few gemstones are used as gems in the crystal or other form in which they are found. Most however, are cut and polished for usage as jewelry.
The picture to the left is of a rural, commercial cutting operation in Thailand. This small factory cuts thousands of carats of sapphire annually. The two main classifications are stones cut as smooth, dome shaped stones called cabochons , and stones which are cut with a faceting machine by polishing small flat windows called facets at regular intervals at exact angles.
Stones which are opaque or semi-opaque such as opal , turquoise , variscite , etc. These gems are designed to show the stone's color or surface properties as in opal and star sapphires. Grinding wheels and polishing agents are used to grind, shape and polish the smooth dome shape of the stones.
Gems which are transparent are normally faceted, a method which shows the optical properties of the stone's interior to its best advantage by maximizing reflected light which is perceived by the viewer as sparkle. There are many commonly used shapes for faceted stones. The facets must be cut at the proper angles, which varies depending on the optical properties of the gem. If the angles are too steep or too shallow, the light will pass through and not be reflected back toward the viewer. The faceting machine is used to hold the stone onto a flat lap for cutting and polishing the flat facets.
The color of any material is due to the nature of light itself. Daylight, often called white light, is all of the colors of the spectrum combined. When light strikes a material, most of the light is absorbed while a smaller amount of a particular frequency or wavelength is reflected. The part that is reflected reaches the eye as the perceived color. A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light, while reflecting the red.
A material which is mostly the same can exhibit different colors. For example, ruby and sapphire have the same primary chemical composition both are corundum but exhibit different colors because of impurities. Even the same named gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called " padparadscha sapphire ".
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This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition and structure, they are not exactly the same. Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom, sometimes as few as one in a million atoms. These so-called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected. For example, beryl , which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities. If manganese is added instead of chromium , beryl becomes pink morganite.
With iron, it becomes aquamarine. Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem. Gemstones are often treated to enhance the color or clarity of the stone. Depending on the type and extent of treatment, they can affect the value of the stone. Some treatments are used widely because the resulting gem is stable, while others are not accepted most commonly because the gem color is unstable and may revert to the original tone.
Heat can improve gemstone color or clarity. The heating process has been well known to gem miners and cutters for centuries, and in many stone types heating is a common practice. Aquamarine is often heated to remove yellow tones, or to change green colors into the more desirable blue, or enhance its existing blue color to a purer blue. When jewelry containing diamonds is heated for repairs the diamond should be protected with boric acid ; otherwise the diamond which is pure carbon could be burned on the surface or even burned completely up. When jewelry containing sapphires or rubies is heated, those stones should not be coated with boracic acid which can etch the surface or any other substance.
They do not have to be protected from burning, like a diamond although the stones do need to be protected from heat stress fracture by immersing the part of the jewelry with stones in water when metal parts are heated. Virtually all blue topaz , both the lighter and the darker blue shades such as "London" blue, has been irradiated to change the color from white to blue. Most greened quartz Oro Verde is also irradiated to achieve the yellow-green color. Diamonds are irradiated to produce fancy-color diamonds which occur naturally, though rarely in gem quality.
Emeralds containing natural fissures are sometimes filled with wax or oil to disguise them. This wax or oil is also colored to make the emerald appear of better color as well as clarity. Turquoise is also commonly treated in a similar manner.
Fracture filling has been in use with different gemstones such as diamonds, emeralds and sapphires. In "glass filled rubies" received publicity. Such treatments are fairly easy to detect. Synthetic gems are physically, optically and chemically identical to the natural stone, but are created in controlled conditions in a laboratory. Examples of simulated or imitation stones include cubic zirconia , composed of zirconium oxide and simulated moissanite , which are both diamond simulants. The imitations copy the look and color of the real stone but possess neither their chemical nor physical characteristics.
Moissanite actually has a higher refractive index than diamond and when presented beside an equivalently sized and cut diamond will have more "fire" than the diamond. Synthetic, cultured or lab-created gemstones are not imitations. For example, diamonds , rubies , sapphires and emeralds have been manufactured in labs to possess identical chemical and physical characteristics to the naturally occurring variety.
Synthetic lab created corundum , including ruby and sapphire, is very common and costs much less than the natural stones. Smaller synthetic diamonds have been manufactured in large quantities as industrial abrasives , although larger gem-quality synthetic diamonds are becoming available in multiple carats. Whether a gemstone is a natural stone or lab-created synthetic , the physical characteristics are the same.
Lab-created stones tend to have a more vivid color to them, as impurities are not present in a lab and do not modify the clarity or color of the stone, unless added intentionally for a specific purpose. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Piece of mineral crystal used to make jewelry. For other uses, see Gemstone disambiguation.
You are great at spotting opportunities and can efficiently relate your ideas to others. Emotionally, hidden under your aloof mannerisms, you are affectionate and extremely loyal but only to those you love and care about the most. A suitably challenging occupation is essential for a person born on the fourteenth of January to combat boredom at work. You require a career that is progressive where you can utilize your creativity and quick thinking and gain a sense of accomplishment.
When it comes to finances you have a good brain for numbers but you will find it easier to manage other people's money rather than your own.
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You will sometimes struggle to find an appropriate balance in your personal financial arrangements as you have a tendency to every now and then be indulgent or reckless in your spending. Akin to a typical Capricorn the person born on the fourteenth day of January is diffident and cool towards intimacy. Although you long to love and be loved you may find it difficult to open up especially at the start of a relationship.
You are often ahead of your age in understanding and very respectful and will expect a partner to be the same. They will have to appreciate your need for occasional solitude and understand why you are most often slow to commit to permanent personal relationships. It is unusual for you to settle long term into a soul mate partnership until you have known the other person for a long time. You will seek someone with a similar intelligence and interests. As you are so self reliant you greatly value your privacy and will usually search for a partner that also holds this in high regard.
Health is sometimes not taken seriously enough by those born on January 14th as you are likely to neglect yourself in this area. While you enjoy your food you need to stay still long enough to digest it properly and learn to relax a bit more. Any issues with your health like headaches or insomnia are most often stress related or linked to a poor diet.
People born on this day should perhaps consider meditative relaxation therapies to unwind and avoid skipping meals or not getting adequate rest. You are the sort of individual who seems to need a full night's sleep and will be short tempered if they don't get it. Your main strengths of character are in your strong will, mental alertness and ability to organize at speed. These characteristics and your friendly, sociable manner allow you to get along with and help lots of different types of people. A noticeable personality weakness in those born on January 14th is in your distance and coolness emotionally in one to one relationships, a good partner helps here.
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Another negative trait you may possess is that once in a while you can be too stubborn for your own good. Being born on the 14th of January denotes that you much prefer to go with the natural flow of things rather than make concrete plans. You do have personal dreams and goals but they could change frequently as you naturally take life as it comes and are able to work around things.
Anything you are particularly enthusiastic about or aim for is unlikely to be dampened by any delays or discouragements as you are highly motivated towards your wishes. You like to do things that you have decided entirely for yourself and generally set your own flexible time limits on any ambitions. As you were born on the fourteenth day of the month your date of birth has the digits one and four adding up to a Root number of 5. This birthday number reference has the keyword ' Inquiry' and possibly conveys your inquisitiveness and adept social conversational skills.
The Tarot card connected to your birthday is the 14th Major Arcana card known as Temperance. This is a symbol of the balance you need to acquire in life to feel contented. A Diamond is the luckiest gemstone associated with January the fourteenth birthdays and it promises increased finances and protection against bad luck. In Astrology the star sign of Capricorn is ruled by the planet Saturn determining your ambitiousness and reserved emotions.
The actual day you were born, the fourteenth of January is astrologically governed by the planetary forces of Mercury. The influential power of these 2 planets combine to create the finer details of your individuality. Your preference to use your instincts to guide you through life serve you well and give you more opportunities for success. Your motivation and enthusiasm help you persevere where others would give up. A finishing thought for people born on January the 14th is, if you can control your apprehension of trusting others with your emotions you will benefit considerably from the security of love and commitment.
Birthday Horoscope January 15th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 15th. Birthday Horoscope January 16th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 16th. Birthday Horoscope January 17th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 17th. Birthday Horoscope January 18th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 18th.
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Birthday Horoscope January 19th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 19th. Birthday Horoscope January 20th, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 20th. Birthday Horoscope January 21st, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 21st. Birthday Horoscope January 22nd, personal asctrological characteristic for those who were born on January 22nd. Birthday Horoscope for those who were born on January 14th under the Zodiac sign Capricorn. January 14th Persona Profile People born specifically on the 14th of January are clever, independent and full of ambition like a typical Capricorn.
January 14th Work and Finances A suitably challenging occupation is essential for a person born on the fourteenth of January to combat boredom at work.
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